Data Integration


During the module students will use GIS and Remote Sensing to enter, manipulate, analyze, model, visualize, disseminate, combine and integrate geospatial data.
In the previous weeks they have learned about various GIS and remote sensing techniques for earth observation to manage and display geospatial information. The present topic is more dedicated to combining information from different sources and moments to retrieve new meaningful information. Also attention is paid to the requirements that have to be fulfilled in order to make these applications possible.
This topic starts with an explanation on process models and observation models and it is shown how both model types can be used in combination. Next, the so called “multi” concept in remote sensing is introduced. Data from multiple sources can be integrated to derive geospatial information of higher quality. Other subjects covered are: data conversion issues (where the spatial, temporal and spectral scales of the processes and the observations play an important role), integration of earth observation and socio-economic data and finally the important application of change detection.




Learning outcomes



  • Understand and describe “System Earth” and some of its parts applying elements of systems analysis and systems thinking and acquire skills in describing reality as a system and in building a model of a system, identifying its components and their interrelationships.
  • Define “usability” in terms of its aspects and understand the principles of user-centered design in which uses, users and stakeholders will have to be determined in the initial requirement analysis stage and in which methods of evaluation of a designed prototype will have to be selected in the final stage. Note: with “prototype” we may refer to a variety of geo-information products and tools, such as maps, geo-information applications, geoportals, geodatabases, etc.
  • Understand the basic processes and challenges in data integration, processing, analysis and conversion in an SDI environment while combining multiple data sets from arious remote sensing and other sources. Describe and use various methods of change detection.
Moreover, for this module you will have the opportunity to apply the obtained knowledge on 
a specific case study which you will be requested to select in the beginning of the module. You can make your choice according to your interests. During the three weeks of the module you will have the opportunity to apply what was thought directly on your selected case study. After every week you will be given a question from your supervisor. In total you will have three questions corresponding to the three objectives of the module. The questions should be
answered in a context of the selected case study. At the end of the module you will be requested to deliver an individual report according to the instructions that will be given to you.




  • System earth
  • System components and models
  • Use and the User, Spatial Data Infrastructure and Geo-portals
  • Data Integration
  • Process models vs. Observation models
  • The multi concept
  • Data conversion
  • Change detection



Allocated time per teaching and learning method



Teaching / learning method

Allocated Hours



Supervised practicals


Unsupervised practicals


Individual assignment


Group assignment










Development time




 There will be a final examination. All examinations will be closed book and closed notes. The practical skills are assessed based on the students’ performance and reports for a few assignments during the practical sessions. The assignments will be related to the combining, processing and analyzing of information from different sources in an SDI environment.



Final Grade Determination




Case Study

40 %

Final Examination

60 %





Text book from the faculty of ITC


K.N.Toosi University
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